Issue InformationIssue Full File (2023-Volume 4, Issue 1)
pp. i - vi | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353
2023-Volume 4, Issue 1
Issue Full File
Cover, Editorial Board, Front Pages, Author Guidelines, Indexing, Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Case ReportCase of Preferential Selection of Attribute over Variable Control Charts in Trend Analysis of Microbiological Count in Water
Mostafa Essam Eissa, Engy Refaat Rashed & Dalia Essam Eissa
pp. 1 - 9 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.01
Monitoring the quality criteria in the healthcare industry and the pharmaceutical field specifically is a crucial mission activity to ensure the delivery of safe and effective treatment to patients with predictable and acceptable medicinal properties. One of the critical ingredients that are found in many activities is water. In the present study, the inspection characteristic trend was monitored by collecting results of the microbial count of Purified Water (PW) at two points in the water treatment station. The dataset was examined for pattern and distribution after processing and stratification and before conducting transformation using Microsoft Excel. Then, control charts were constructed using Statistical Process Control (SPC) software. The results showed that transformation improved data normalization for the Individual-Moving Range (I-MR) chart while the original pattern of the dataset was lost distorted. On the other hand, other advantages could be retained when using the Laney chart where no transformation was implemented on original raw data. The selection should be based on the nature of the process aim and condition.
Keywords: Laney, I-MR, Purified water, Control limits, Statistical process control, Transformation
Original ArticlesTraditional Weather Forecasting: Practices of Fishers, Sailors and Old Folks in Tawi-Tawi, Philippines
Albaris B. Tahiluddin, Abdulgajir H. Ullang Jr, Alfayedie M. Jali, Jaro O. Ajik, Jamrun H. Ebbah & Wahaymin M. Jamil
pp. 10 - 16 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.02
Weather forecasting using traditional methods in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, is an important indigenous knowledge and is heavily applied to predict the weather in preparation for fishing and sailing and also for disaster prevention. Here, we documented the practices of the local people of Tawi-Tawi, situated in the southern Philippines, in forecasting weather using traditional methods. The informants of the study were fishers/Badjaos (n=15), sailors/boat captains (n=15) and old folks (n=15), which were interviewed at the Chinese Pier, Bongao, located in Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Results revealed that traditional knowledge/methods using atmospheric (clouds, wind, temperature, and visibility), astronomical (sun and moon) and biological (seagrasses/algae, ants, birds, bees, and earthworms) indicators were used to forecast weather, which generally predicts an incoming rainy season as well as adverse weather (typhoons and floods). This study indicates that traditional weather forecasting is still used by the local people of Tawi-Tawi crucial for fishing and sailing activities.
Keywords: Badjao, Fisher, Sailor, Traditional weather forecasting, Philippines
Effects of the Combination of Treflan and Furazolidone as Therapeutants on Molting, Survival, and Growth Performance of Blue Swimming Crab Instar Portunus pelagicus
Iannie P. Maribao, Abdel-Azeem M. Alsim, Abdurizal A. Eldani & Jurmin H. Sarri
pp. 17 - 26 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.03
A variety of antibiotics and other chemicals are used in aquaculture for various purposes, including to promote growth and reduce mortality, as well as to treat and prevent disease. As part of the larval rearing of crustaceans such as prawns and shrimp, antibiotics such as Treflan and Furazolidone are used to increase the survival rate of the post-larvae. In this study, the combined effect of Treflan and Furazolidone on the molting frequency, growth performances, and survival of blue swimming crab (BSC, Portunus pelagicus) instar reared in fiberglass tanks was determined. Two treatments with three replicates each were tested. Twenty (n=20) individual crab instars of uniform size (average length 1.5 ± 0.00 cm and average weight 10.33 ± 0.00 g) were stocked per circular fiberglass tanks, each with a water capacity of 200 L for 37 days culture period starting from the crab instar up to the juvenile stage. Treatment 1 corresponds to the control without the application of Treflan and Furazolidone (NTF). Treatment 2 represents the use of Treflan and Furazolidone (TF) at the dosage of 0.2 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. The results showed that the growth and molting frequency of BSC instar were not affected by TF application at the end of the culture period. In both treatments, survival rates declined due to the frequent and excessive use of TF, which might be the reason for descending rates. Hence, the combined effects of TF did not enhance the molting, growth, and survival performance of BSC instars when administered as therapeutics.
Keywords: Blue swimming crab, Furazolidone, Instar, Portunus pelagicus, Therapeutant, Treflan
Port Competitiveness Criteria for Transshipment Container Market: A Turkish Port Industry Application
Sedat Baştuğ, Soner Esmer & Enes Eminoğlu
pp. 27 - 46 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.04
Since the 1970s when the hub and spoke system entered commercial life, it becomes a major distribution pattern in the transshipment container market. Many feeder ports feed the mega-ports with containers, they are not large by size, but they have great capacity of being flexible, agile, and close to the shippers in the local hinterland. Although it is not enough to continuously feed the maritime transportation system with different ships, this must be continuously fed by the maritime and hinterland connection. However, the connectivity of the ports is not the only criterion to have sustainable port competitiveness for terminals. There are other criteria to be identified and measured which one is important for terminal operators and users. Therefore, this study aims to determine the criteria to be followed by container terminals and to sort them in order of importance to have a sustainable competitive advantage in the transshipment container market. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review and a quantitative research process were carried out with container line and container terminal operators, the importance levels of these criteria were defined by the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, which is a multi-criteria decision-making method. The study has not only defined competitive criteria for the transshipment market but also the opinions of both parties were compared. According to the results Port Infrastructure and Superstructure criterion is defined as the most important criterion for both parties.
Keywords: Container terminal, Line operator, Transshipment, Port selection, Business sustainability
Development of High Throughput Rapid Turbidimetric Assay for Potency Determination of Gramicidin
Mostafa Essam Eissa, Engy Refaat Rashed & Dalia Essam Eissa
pp. 47 - 57 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.05
Gramicidin is a polypeptide antibiotic composed of a mixture of antimicrobial compounds. Thus, its antibacterial activity is preferentially assessed using a microbiological assay. The aim of this study is targeting to establish and validate a microbiological potency for Gramicidin with a view to the employment of a simple method with more than two folds output per test run (if compared with symmetrical designs) using 3×1 experimental designs with reasonably statistically acceptable results. The validation criteria of gramicidin turbidimetric assay using the USP method were tested in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Moreover, the consistency of the experimental groups was examined in terms of error and difference from the target labelled concentration of 0.25 mg g-1 value, in addition to the uncertainty factor. Verification of the assay suitability was evaluated statistically against reference antibiotics of known activity. Calibration of the analytical curve showed a coefficient of correlation (r) = 0.9980 with none of the relative standard deviations (RSD) values greater than three. There was no observable fixed or variable deviation in the absorbance measurement with concentration increment. The accuracy output and profile were evaluated over ranges 50%, 100% and 150% having a maximum RSD of around three with reasonable results, confidence and absence of concentration-related bias. Robustness, precision and suitability verification were evaluated with no outliers and all RSDs below five. The turbidimetric assay design of 3×1 for gramicidin showed acceptable validation parameters and could be used as a substitute design for conventional higher-level parallel line assay models.
Keywords: Gramicidin, Linearity, Regression, Repeatability, Robustness, Specificity
Review ArticlesImportance of Natural Meadows and Rangelands in the Future Prospective of Türkiye
Ahmet Gökkuş & Ece Coşkun
pp. 58 - 67 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.06
People should consume animal as well as plant products in terms of having a sufficient and balanced diet. Therefore, it depends on the production of adequate animal products, so that animals can be fed regularly. Due to this reason, the most important problem faced in animal husbandry in our country is the difficulties in providing adequate and quality roughage. The main sources of quality roughage for livestock animals are the fodder crops produced from cultivated fields as well as meadows and rangeland hay. In Türkiye, approximately 14.5% hay and 27.2% grain feed (concentrated feed) are produced in field areas. On the other hand, increasing population and rising income levels correlatedly increase the demand for animal products. However, currently, 41.7% of field areas are allocated for the production of animal feed (hay + grain feed), while food production for human beings is carried out in 55.6% of cultivated field areas. Therefore, it is very difficult to meet the increasing demand for roughage and concentrated feed of animals from existing agricultural areas. However, natural meadows-rangelands are the most important resources that can meet the roughage needs of animals without competing with food production areas. Therefore, meadows and rangelands should be protected, and shouldn’t be used for other purposes, low-yielding ones should be improved and should be used in accordance with management principles for sustainable production if it is desired to feed people regularly in the future.
Keywords: Forage crops, Meadow and rangeland, Forage production
Original ArticlesThe Effects of Diets Including Different Amount of Tribulus terrestris Supplementation on Spermatological Parameters and Fertilization Ability of Male Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Denizhan Kılınç, Bülent Yorulmaz & Fatih Öğretmen
pp. 68 - 77 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.07
The aim of this study was to examine how varying doses of Tribulus terrestris supplementation affected the fertilization ability and spermatological characteristics of male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Male fish (mean weight of 497±5.29 g and a mean length of 33.5±3.4 cm) were fed with four experimental diets containing different amounts of T. terrestris (0, 100, 250, 500 mg/kg feed) for 90 days in duplicates. The motility time analysis of all groups indicates that the motility times of male rainbow trout fed with T. terrestris increased. Besides, the fertilization rate of the control group is lower than the groups that fed with T. terrestris supplementation. In comparison with the control group without any additives, especially the fertilization rate of the trout fed with 250 mg/kg was 95% (p<0.05). Furthermore, this study also examined how T. terrestris supplementation affects the blood plasma of male rainbow trout and it was found that the male rainbow trout fed with T. terrestris supplementation had the highest LH hormone value at 250 mg/kg.
Keywords: Tribulus terrestris, Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Seminal plasma, Sperm quality, Sperm motility
Review ArticlesEscherichia coli: Germ Theory, A Bacterial Killer Mechanism, Virulence, Pathogenicity Islands (PAIs), Pathogenesis, Secretion Systems
Nurdan Filik & Fethi Filik
pp. 77 - 86 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.08
Why do bacteria damage their hosts? After bacteria bypass the immune system, bacterial virulence enables a host to replicate and propagate within a host in part by demolishing or escaping host defenses. Bacterial pathogens possess an array of specific killer mechanisms that submit virulence and the capacity to intercept host defence mechanisms. Mechanisms of virulence are often mediated by the subversion of normal aspects of host biology. Also, recently, three novels but wide themes have emerged in the field of bacterial virulence: a bacterial killing mechanism, secretion systems and pathogenicity islands. So, pathogen changes the host function so as to support the pathogen’s survival or multiplication. Such subversion is often mediated by the specific interaction of bacterial effector molecules with host-encoded proteins and other molecules. Escherichia coli is a considerable and diverse micro alive. E. coli needs only to acquire a mix of mobile genetic elements to become a pathogen capable of causing diseases. The worldwide burden of these diseases is staggering, with hundreds of millions alive affected annually. E. coli strains have been well a bacteria model, and each uses an arsenal of virulence and toxin to subvert host cellular functions to reenforce its virulence. This review focuses on the drastic and different pathogenic mechanisms that are used by various E. coli strains.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, A bacterial killer mechanism, Virulence, Pathogenicity islands, Pathogenesis, Secretion systems, Germ theory
Original ArticlesImpact of Different Nutrient Enrichment Concentrations on the Growth of Microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Monodopsidaceae) Culture
Norsheen B. Sanuddin, Melodina D. Hairol, Cherry T. Nian, Rizal Jhunn F. Robles, Hadjiran A. Illud, Jubail S. Muyong, Jamrun H. Ebbah & Jurmin H. Sarri
pp. 87 - 93 | DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.353.09
Microalgae consist of unicellular algal species that can produce and accumulate a wide variety of biomolecules. In order to maintain a high cell density in a continuous phototrophic culture of algae, the nutrient can serve as the most important factor in enhancing cell density. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of nutrients on the cell density of microalga Nannochloropsis sp. cultured in the mega plastic box (with 50 L capacity) was investigated. Four groups of treatment with four replicates were tested: group A (including 5 g of ferric chloride, ammonium phosphate, and Urea), group B (including 10 g of ferric chloride, ammonium phosphate, and urea), group C (including 15 g of ferric chloride, ammonium phosphate, and urea), and group D (including 15 g of ferric chloride, ammonium phosphate, and urea with 40 g of cow manure). Results revealed that group C and group D achieved maximum density on day three as 86.39×106 cell m and 85.59×106 cell m, respectively, which were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the cell density of groups A (58.01×106 cell m) and group B (70.67×106 cell m). Additionally, the increasing specific growth rate (SGR) of Nannochloropsis sp. cultured was obtained in group D at 0.308 after the culture period. From the result of the study, it is concluded that the concentrations of 15 g ferric chloride, ammonium phosphate, and urea (group C) and 15 g ferric chloride, ammonium phosphate, and urea combined with 40 g cow manure (group D) are capable of increasing cell density growth of microalga Nannochloropsis sp. cultured in a mega plastic box.
Keywords: Cell density, Growth, Microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp., Nutrient enrichment