Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

Volume 5 Issue 1 (June 2024)

Original Articles

Calculation of Isothermal Compressibility and Bulk Modulus as a Function of Pressure in a Perovskite-Like Framework of [(C³H7)4N] [Mn(N(CN)2)3]  

Sedat Avcı & Mustafa Kurt

pp. 1 - 10


The many distortions in solid material that are most easily triggered by factors like pressure are called its structural degrees of freedom. Zeolites, perovskites, coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are all members of the extensive and significant family of solids known as framework materials. In the last decade, it has been shown that perovskite-like framework materials have great potential applicable in solar panel cell production. The Perovskite-like framework, [(C_{3}H_{7})_{4}N)] [Mn(N(CN)_{2})_{3}] [TPrA][Mn(dca)_{3}] in short), has recently attracted scientists, due to its magnetism, ferroelectricity, luminescence, switchable dielectric behaviour, multiferroic behaviour, non-linear optical properties and also photovoltaic properties. Exerted pressure causes changes in the structural, optical, and electronic properties of perovskite and perovskite-like compounds. As a result of these effects, these compounds present phase transitions at certain pressures. The [TPrA][Mn(dca)_{3}] compound also exhibits two structural phase transitions at 0.3 GPa and 3.0 GPa pressure. In this study, we calculated some important thermodynamic parameters, which are the isothermal Grüneisen value, isothermal compressibility, and Bulk modulus, as a function of pressure to analyse phase transition dynamics by using observed volume and frequency values from the literature. The Bulk modulus values were determined at 9.86 GPa for the Pcnb -phase and 36 GPa for the P21/n -phase by using calculated isothermal compressibility values. Our results confirm that the perovskite-like [TPrA][Mn(dca)_{3}] compound is a good candidate for solar panel cell production, as corroborated in the literature.

Keywords: Perovskite-like frameworks, Structural phase transition, Grüneisen value, Bulk modulus, Isothermal compressibility

The Preventive Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Liver Tissue Against Doxorubicin-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

Suat Çakına, Şamil Öztürk & Latife Ceyda İrkin

pp. 11 - 18


Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent and is widely used in cancer treatment. There are some studies suggesting oxidative stress-induced toxic changes in the liver due to DOX administration. The aim of this study was to reveal the oxidative damage of DOX in liver tissue at molecular level and to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against DOX oxidative damage. Twenty four rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into four equal groups; group 1: control, group 2: received a single dose of DOX, group 3: received NAC for 28 days and group 4: received a single dose of DOX, followed by NAC for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, liver tissues were taken from all animals. Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Total Oxidant Capacity (TOC) levels were determined in these samples by spectrophotometric methods. The histopathological changes of liver tissue were observed routinely in histological staining. It was determined that TOC level increased, TAC levels decreased in the group given DOX compared to the control group. In addition, TAC levels increased in the DOX+NAC group. It was showed the occurrence of congestion in portal triad, and pycnotic cells degeneration in DOX group. It was concluded that DOX administration increased oxidative stress and NAC administration could prevent the increased oxidative stress (p<0.05). NAC caused modulatory effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant redox system in DOX-induced liver toxicity in the rat.

Keywords: Doxorubicin, N-Acetylcysteine, Liver, Oxidative stress

Assessment of Some Inspection Properties of Commonly Used Medicinal Excipients Using Statistical Process Control for Monitoring of Manufacturer Quality

Mostafa Eissa

pp. 19 - 30


This study is a component of a larger initiative that involves the assessment and screening of pharmaceutical and chemical factories that produce medical substances, particularly in Asia and export them to poor nations. The present study concentrated on the inactive pharmaceutical ingredients of a frequently used excipient in pharmaceutical products made of amylopectin and amylose, named Amylum Maydis by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature. This compound has the chemical formula C6H10O5. Manufacturers asserted that all raw ingredients complied with the British Pharmacopoeia (BP), harmonizing requirements and analytical criteria in the process. As a result, every test complied with the official standard procedures described in the raw material testing monograph. The chosen tests included oxidizing agents, sulfated ash, and loss on drying (LOD). Software for statistical process control, or SPC, was used to collect and handle datasets. Preliminary data examination was done using box plots and three variable visualization techniques associated with the correlation matrix. All results showed that improvements of the inspection characteristics records are mandated to show stable variations even if there was no out-of-specification detected. Accordingly, the output of the tests should be investigated to correct for the assignable causes of the variations. It should be noted that the present data did not follow specific distributions, especially with the presence of aberrant values. Furthermore, it was found that there were several out-of-control points even in cases where there was no deviation from the specification, highlighting the need for suitable inquiry and correction for assignable reasons of variances among batches. Government enforcement of industrial SPC regulations is necessary to ensure the safety and quality of produced medical substances.

Keywords: Box plot, Bubble plot, Control chart, Contour plot, Corn starch, SPC

Current Perspective in Quality Control Examining and Extended Researching for Certain Aspects of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Using Statistical Process Control

Mostafa Eissa

pp. 31 - 40


Control charts are an important part of statistical control because they allow the inspection characteristics of manufactured pharmaceutical products to be tracked and controlled. It helps show current processes and status and, if necessary, identifies areas for further development. The investigation and analysis of an initial trend for a few inspection properties of the manufactured chemical 3-O-ethyl 5-O-methyl 2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate benzenesulfonic acid is the main focus of the current work. Using the well-known commercial SPC platform for comprehensive SPC analyses. The datasets of the assay and polarization rotation followed the Weibull pattern. While the results of the overall impurities and particle size test data were adopted for Gaussian spreading the Johnson family transformation was implemented for the latter. An exploratory Individual-Moving Range plot is the method used to trend the datasets and capacity analyses were conducted in accordance with that method. Improvements are required to enhance the quality of inspection properties at the preliminary steps since there are signs of a low capability process in the particle size test and the assay to some extent. In addition, the means of the quality tests should be brought to the center since the preliminary data are not in the middle of the specification range. Thus, some inspection characteristics are lower quality than others and need immediate correction and enhancement at the initial stages of the establishment of the manufacturing process and criteria. This perspective highlights the importance of control charts in the examination of the quality of chemically manufactured materials.

Keywords: Capability plot, Johnson transformation, Individual-Moving Range, Normal probability, Weibull distribution

Doğal Afetin (6 Şubat 2023 Kahramanmaraş Depremleri) Hatay Balıkçılık Sektörüne İlk Etkileri ve Süreç Yönetim Önerileri: Hatay Örneği

Aydın Demirci, Emrah Şimşek, Semih Kale & Sevil Demirci

pp. 41 - 50


Türkiye’de 6 Şubat 2023 tarihinde meydana gelen Kahramanmaraş merkezli depremler ve sonrasındaki sarsıntılar Hatay ilinde de çok büyük yıkımlara neden olmuştur. Doğal olarak balıkçılık sektörü de bu sarsıntılardan direkt ve dolaylı olarak etkilenmiştir. Bölgedeki tüm insanlar gibi birçok balıkçı da can güvenliği nedeni ile balıkçılık faaliyetlerine ara vermek zorunda kalmıştır. Bu çalışmada depremlerin bölgedeki balıkçı barınakları, balıkçı gemileri, perakende ve toptan balık ticareti yapılan işletmeler ve su ürünleri ithalat-ihracat firmalarının üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bölgedeki tüm insanlar gibi birçok balıkçı da can güvenliği nedeni ile balıkçılık faaliyetlerine ara vermek zorunda kalmıştır. Balıkçılık sektörü depremlerden yaklaşık bir ay sonra diğer sektörlere nazaran çok daha hızlı bir şekilde normalleşme sürecine girmiştir. Bu çalışmada bölge balıkçılığının sürdürülebilir ekosistem kavramı ve denizel kaynaklardan maksimum faydanın sağlanabilmesi için öneriler sunulmuştur. Bu süreçte balıkçılık sektörünün tekrar canlanabilmesi için su ürünleri ticareti yapan işletmelerin (perakende, toptancı ve ihracat) desteklenmesine öncelik verilmesinin büyük önem taşıdığı düşünülmektedir. Çünkü bu işletmelerin faaliyeti doğrudan balıkçılık faaliyetinde bulunan paydaşlara ve özelikle küçük ölçekli balıkçılara yansıyacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu destek kapsamında deprem nedeni ile alınan olağanüstü hal kararları göz önünde bulundurularak fırsatçılığa yol açmamak için denetimlerin daha etkin olması gerekmektedir.

Keywords: Deprem, Doğal afet, Balıkçılık sektörü, Hatay

Morphological Investigation of Larval Development in Maylandia estherae (Konings, 1995), an Endemic Cichlid Species of Lake Malawi

İhsan Çelik & Pınar Çelik

pp. 51 - 56


This study investigates the morphological aspects of larval development in Maylandia estherae, an endemic cichlid species from Lake Malawi. Larvae obtained from mature broodstock were sampled daily from hatching until the juvenile stage, and their morphological development was observed under a microscope. Important morphological features such as mouth opening, exogenous feeding, free swimming, yolk sac, and pigmentation were observed and photographed. The findings indicate that M. estherae larvae reached the juvenile stage within approximately 20-25 days. Throughout larval development, it was determined that total length and mouth gape gradually increased, the yolk sac was depleted within 12-13 days, and exogenous feeding commenced alongside the development of free-swimming ability. Additionally, significant changes in fin differentiation and pigmentation were observed in the larvae. The larval development duration and morphological characteristics of M. estherae were found to be similar to those of other Malawi cichlid species. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the ontogenetic processes of M. estherae and have implications for aquaculture practices. Furthermore, the results provide a significant contribution to the literature on the larval development of Malawi cichlids and offer insights for future research.

Keywords: Maylandia estherae, Cichlidae, Lake Malawi, Larval development, Morphology

Investigation of the Chemical Composition of the Shell Structure of Mytilus galloprovincialis Mussel From Kefken, Türkiye

Bayram Kızılkaya, Harun Yıldız, Sefa Acarlı & Pervin Vural

pp. 57 - 68


In this study, the chemical composition of Mytilus galloprovincialis shells was examined. As known, the main component of shell composition in bivalves is calcium carbonate, which constitutes approximately 94% of the shell. The zero charge points (PZC) of the shells were determined in the study. The PZC value indicates the surface charge state of the shells. The PZC value of the shells was determined to be 8.39. The PZC value of the shells provides important information for the characterization and potential applications of the shells. SEM images and EDS analyzes of the shells were made. According to the EDS results, calcium, carbon, and oxygen atoms belonging to the main structure of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) appeared in the highest proportions. FT-IR analysis was supported to the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure. XRD analyses were performed within the scope of the study, and it was determined that the shell structures mainly consist of a mixture of calcium carbonate and aragonite. In conclusion, this study on the chemical composition of M. galloprovincialis shells provides a detailed analysis of shell composition. The analyses conducted provide important information about the chemical composition, structural properties, and potential applications of the shells. This study contributes to research on the biological and chemical properties of marine organisms and is considered to form the basis for future studies.

Keywords: Mytilus galloprovincialis, Bivalve shells, Calcium carbonate, The zero charge points

Biometric Evaluations and Condition Factor of the Mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarous (Linnaeus, 1766) From Ibaka Mangrove Swamp, Nigeria

Enenwan Precious Udoinyang, Aniefiokmkpong O Okon, Victoria Folakemi Akinjogunla, Itoro J Archibong, Uwana J Effiong, & Emmanuel A Essien

pp. 69 - 78


The length-weight relationship and Fulton condition factor (K) of 404 samples of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus from Ibaka mangrove swamp were investigated for six months (January to June 2022) using standard methods to accommodate both the dry and wet seasons. For the 404 samples, the mean total length was 11.22±0.11 cm while the mean body weight was 16.4±0.48 g. Other biometric data collected includes percentage eye diameter (ED%) ranging between 5.07 and 8.26 cm for May and February, respectively. Percentage head length (HL%) values were between 20.9 and 28.12 cm for May and January, respectively. For percentage body depth (BD%), the least was recorded in April (19.49 cm) while the highest was observed in February (24.55 cm). The Fulton condition factor (K) determined for most of the sampled months showed that the values were above unity (K>1), indicating good living conditions on account of food availability, absence of parasites/predators, and absence of disease. However, K was less than unity (K<1) in February and June, indicating a possible decline in food availability and other factors responsible for growth. The values of the length-weight relationship (b) were greater than 3 (b>3) in almost all the months except in April, having a value of 2.895, indicating that the species exhibited a positive allometric growth pattern. This implied that as the length of the fish increased, there was also a corresponding increase in the weight of P. barbarus from the Ibaka Mangrove Swamp.

Keywords: Condition factor, Eye-diameter, Head length, Ibaka estuary, Length-weight